Extraction of teeth is the most common form of minor oral surgical procedure performed in the clinic. There are many indications for extraction of teeth.
The most common indications are describd below
1. Routine Extraction:
This procedure is performed for fractured /carious/broken down teeth.
Impacted painful third molars(wisdom teeth)-these are generally stuck in the jaw bone as they have inadequate space to erupt since they erupt at a later stage of life, generally 18-25 years. If a wisdom tooth does not have an opposing tooth or is embedded in bone, it generally is extracted surgically. (Disimpaction).
If the tooth is partially erupted, has an opposing tooth, and has adequate space behind it for complete eruption, yet has a soft tissue or gum covering, a minor procedure called operculectomy is performed to remove the soft tissue and facilate eruption. At times, food and bacteria may get lodged beneath this gum tissue, or pouch called operculum, leading to pus formation , swelling(abscess) called pericoronalabscesss, which may be very painful and sometimes may lead to fever and swollen lymph nodes. In this case an abscess drainage is performed and antibiotics may have to be prescribed , following which a decision is made whether to save the tooth or to extract it.
Sometimes healthy teeth especially first or second premolars have to be extracted in cases of overcrowding, so as to make space and facilitate tooth movement. Extraction of impacted canines/overetained teeth: Teeth which are overretained, like deciduous teeth which do not exfoliate , or impacted(stuck in the jaw bones) canines have to be extracted, if they interfere with the normal occlusion.